Thursday, 18 June 2015

Two-stroke power valve system

The two-stroke power valve system is an improvement to a conventional two-stroke engine that gives a high power output over a wider RPM range.


Operation of a two-stroke engine

A stroke is the action of a piston travelling the full length of its cylinder. In a two-stroke engine, one of the two strokes combines the intake stroke and the compression stroke, while the other stroke combines the combustion stroke and the exhaust stroke.
As the piston travels upward in the cylinder, it creates low pressure area in the crankcase; this draws fresh air and atomized fuel from the carburetor through a hole in the cylinder wall or directly into the crankcase. As the piston continues travelling upward, transfer ports and the exhaust ports are closed off, thus trapping the combustible mixture in the combustion chamber. As the piston reaches the top of the cylinder, the mixture in the cylinder is compressed to the point of ignition.
The second stroke begins once ignition has taken place. The power stroke begins after the air-fuel mixture is ignited. The burnt fuel creates pressure in the cylinder above the piston and forces it downward. As the piston passes the midpoint of the downstroke, the exhaust port to the side of the cylinder is uncovered and initiates the flow of burned fuel out into the expansion chamber or muffler through the manifold.
The piston then moves downward,where the air-fuel mixture remains from the previous intake-compression stroke. Shortly after the exhaust port is uncovered by the downward travel of the piston, the transfer ports begin to be uncovered. The transfer ports act as a passage through which the air-fuel mixture moves from the crankcase into the cylinder above the piston. Once the piston reaches the bottom of the stroke, the second cycle is completed and the process is repeated.

Engineering design improvements

The only moving parts inside simple two-stroke engines are the crankshaft, the connecting rod, and the piston. It is the same simplicity in design, however, that causes a two-stroke engine to be less fuel-efficient and produce high specific levels of undesirable exhaust gas emissions. At the bottom of the power stroke, the transfer ports, which deliver fresh fuel, are open at the same time as the exhaust port. This can allow a significant amount of fresh fuel to run straight through the engine without ever being available for power production. Properly designed exhaust systems help minimize the amount of raw fuel loss in the exhaust process, but a two-stroke engine will always waste some fuel (modern direct injected engines being an exception to this).
Many producers of two-stroke performance bikes fit them with the exhaust valve systems. These valves act to vary the height (and width) of the exhaust port thereby broadening power delivery over a wider rev range. Exhaust ports with fixed dimensions only produce usable power in a narrow rev range, which also affects fuel consumption and emissions.
In a race bike, this is not a problem as the engine will be operating at high RPM almost all the time. However, in a road/commuter bike, the limited power range is a problem. To provide more low RPM power, as well as enable the engine to produce a lot of high RPM power, a power valve system is used.
All power valve systems vary the duration of the exhaust port open time, which gives the engine usable low end power combined with excellent top end power. Manufacturers have also included sub exhaust chambers that extend the 'tuned length' of the expansion chamber.
Power valve actuation can be by mechanical (RPM dependent) or electric (servo motor) means increasingly with electronic control. Electronic control offers a greater degree of accuracy as well as being able to vary the opening of the valve and be tuned to conditions.

Suzuki AETC and Super AETC

AETC and Super AETC Suzuki engines, Automatic Exhaust Timing Control: The two-blade version was fitted to the VJ21 RGV250, and the three-blade version, to the VJ22 RGV250 and Suzuki RG150.
With the AETC system, the power-valve systems are normally partially closed at low RPM; when closed, it enables the engine to make more power. Up to a certain point, however, power drops off as the engine is unable to expel enough gases out of the exhaust. When the power-valve is opened, it allows more gases to flow out of the exhaust port. This system is recognizable by a small box above the exhaust outlet; the power-valves are situated in this box. Depending on the valve, they may be made of two (older version) or three (newer version) separate blades.

YPVS-Yamaha Power Valve System

YPVS Yamaha engines, Yamaha Power Valve System: Yamaha engineers realized that by altering the height of the exhaust port they could effectively change the engine power delivery thereby having optimal power and torque across the entire rev range, so it was that the YPVS was born. The valve is of a cylindrical design running across the top of the exhaust port, it is turned by a servo motor controlled from a control box taking information from the CDI (and other locations). The valve is a slightly ovular shape. This changes the height and size of the exhaust port at different engine speeds, maximizing the available power at all rev ranges. opening up firstly at 3k rpm for low end power, gradually in between 3-6k, fully opening at 6k rpm for maximum power, on most 125cc. It was fitted to all of the later models of the RZ/RD two-stroke road bikes (125, 250 350 and 500 cc), the TZR range.it was also added to the DT(125lc 2/3) range after 1984 (but was locked closed to comply with UK learner regulations until the(R) in 1988-04 which had a fully functional YPVS valve) the dt125r has a better design of engine,although not much altered in speed, just more reliable than its predecessor. The YZ series of motocross bikes has a mechanical power valve which is activated at RPM speed. The YPVS is only found on the liquid-cooled bikes not air cooled versions. Yamaha have also used a guillotine version in some of their later models such as the TZR250R SPR model.
Yamaha was actually the first company to produce consistent results with their YPVS in their race bikes. The 1977 OW35K was the first race bike to incorporate the power valve system and it won the Finnish GP in 1977. The Kadenacy effect was harnessed and controlled to a point that gave Yamaha great advantage over all the other manufacturers throughout the late '70s and into the mid '80s. The first street bikes with YPVS were the RZ/RD350 YPVS (LC2-onwards), and RZ/RD500 GP Replica in 1983-84.

Honda ATAC

ATAC System: The Honda Automatic Torque Amplification Chamber system works by effectively increasing or decreasing the volume of the exhaust system with a small butterfly valve located just before the exhaust connection. At low RPM a centrifugal crankshaft driven gear opens the valve into a small chamber and increases the volume of the exhaust by allowing the exhaust gases to flow through the chamber. At high RPM the ATAC valve is closed and the exhaust simply exits into the expansion chamber. A larger expansion chamber allows for more power at lower RPMs because of the extra time needed for the impulse to "bounce" back for the supercharger effect. It was used on their CR motocrossers, GP bikes and MTX, MVX, NS and NSR road bikes. 


Honda Power Port valve

 HPP valve. A centrifugal governor opens and closes a two-blade exhaust valve (using over 50 parts)


Honda V-TACS

The "V-TACS" - Variable Torque Amplification Chamber System - works differently from the "ATAC system" and it will only work when it is used in conjunction with a tuned muffler. Tuned mufflers/expansion chambers increase power but only at the RPM they are designed for and can actually cause a power loss outside their tuned RPM. "V-TACS system" takes advantage of using an expansion chamber without losing power outside the expansion chamber's tuned RPM. Within the head and cylinder of the engine, there is a chamber that is sealed by a valve. This sealed chamber is vented onto the exhaust port when the valve is open. At low RPM this valve is open, this has the effect of increasing the exhaust manifold volume and negating the power loss that would normally be apparent at low RPM with an expansion chamber. At mid RPM the valve is closed, this enables the expansion chamber to work. It is identified by the head and cylinder, being much larger than normal for its displacement, the cylinder wall is also cast with the wording VTACS on it.
V-TACS was a foot-operated power valve system made by Honda on some of its small two-stroke bikes and scooters, like the Honda FC50.

 

Honda RC-Valve

 The Honda Revolution Control valve is designed and works in principle like the "AETC system." A small computer monitors engine RPM and adjusts a two-blade exhaust valve with an electric servo. Honda equipped many two-stroke motorcycles such as the NSR125 and NSR250 models with RC - Valve power plants.

Kawasaki KIPS

Kawasaki uses a power-valve system called KIPS (Kawasaki Integrated Powervalve System) on their two-stroke bikes. The KIPS utilizes both alterations in port height, closing of the secondary port ducting, and a resonant chamber. KIPS is operated by a mechanical governor on single cylinder machines .The twin cylinder bikes have an electric motor transferring movement via cable and linkages.

 

 

Wednesday, 17 June 2015

Asal Usul Kaum Dusun Di Sabah

Menurut sumber akademik, terdapat 5 teori mengenai asal usul kaum Dusun di Sabah.
  1. Pertama, kaum Dusun dipercayai berasal dari rumpun Indo-Malayan dari Selatan China ke negara-negara di Asia Tenggara (T.R. Williams: 1965). Dalam kajian mereka, saintis sosial dan ahli sejarah mengambil kira aspek fizikal, bahasa pertuturan, kumpulan darah dan bahan kesenian yang dicipta oleh masyarakat Kadazan-Dusun.  
  2. Teori yang kedua, asal-usul dikaitkan dengan penghijrahan orang Mongol, orang China atau orang Kanchin dan orang Annam dari Myanmar (Ivor H.N. Evans:1923 dan T.R. Williams: 1965).
  3. Teori Ketiga, Kaum Kadazandusun adalah kacukan kaum China (Ivor H.N. Evans:1923 dan Owen Rutter:19220).
  4. Teori Keempat, Kaum Kadazandusun adalah keturunan orang purba Gua Madai.
  5.  Teori kelima, mengatakan kaum ini asalnya dari suku kaum Bunun di Taiwan.
Menurut cerita lisan penduduk, masyarakat Dusun merupakan keturunan dewa dewi, iaitu dari keturunan dewa Kinorohingan dan isterinya Siminundu. Walaubagaimanapun, kebenaran mitos ini hanya didukung oleh masyarakat Dusun tradisional sahaja. Ekoran daripada kemasukan agama fahaman monotheisme khususnya Kristian dan Islam maka generasi sekarang lebih bersifat logistik dan telah mengenepikan mitos tradisional mengenai asal usul mereka yang bersifat metafizik.
Sejak kemasukan kolonialisme pada tahun 1865 dan tersebarnya fahaman monotheisme di kalangan masyarakat Dusun sejak tahun 1970-an, cara hidup orang Dusun mula berubah namun demikian masih terdapat khazanah-khazanah berharga yang masih utuh dan tidak dimakan zaman.
Khazanah-khazanah berharga ini merujuk kepada warisan cara hidup tradisi dari segi adat, sistem kepercayaan tradisional, budaya dan sebagainya termasuklah dari sudut kesenian.
Kesenian merupakan salah satu aspek warisan yang kekal dan terpelihara sehingga sekarang ekoran pengaplikasiannya ke dalam kehidupan seharian. Hal ini senang diaplikasikan dalam kehidupan masyarakat Dusun sehingga sekarang disebabkan tidak memerlukan proses yang sukar, tambahan pula aspek kesenian ini boleh diikuti dengan mudah dan jarang bertentangan dengan hukum agama monotheisme yang dianuti oleh masyarakat Dusun sekarang ini.
Kumpulan etnik yang terbesar adalah suku kaum Dusun yang merupakan satu pertiga dari penduduk Sabah. Suku kaum Dusun yang tinggal di pantai barat seperti Penampang, Papar, Tuaran, Kiulu, Tamparuli, Tenghilan, Kota Belud dan juga di lembah bukit di Ranau, Tambunan, dan Keningau adalah petani tradisi yang menanam padi sawah dan huma. Sesetengah dari mereka memburu serta menangkap ikan sungai. Mereka kebanyakan bertempat di sekelilingi kawasan lembah pantai barat dan kawasan pendalaman.
Lazimnya masyarakat daripada sub-etnik yang disebut di atas adalah berasal (mendiami) daripada kawasan-kawasan (daerah) tertentu umpamanya Kimaragang di daerah Kota Marudu, Lotud di daerah Tuaran, Orang Sungai di daerah Kinabatangan, Sugut, Paitan dan Pitas. Kebanyakan orang Kadazan-Dusun menganuti agama Kristian. Bagi Orang Sungai yang tinggal di daerah Pitas, mereka menganut agama Islam manakala daerah-daerah lain seperti Kinabatangan Orang Sungai turut menganut agama-agama lain.
Masyarakat Lotud (Suang Lotud) turut mendiami kawasan Pantai Barat Selatan negeri Sabah terutamanya Tuaran, Tamparuli, Telipok dan dan sedikit di Kota Belud (Tampasuk). Mereka hidup secara kolektif dengan mendiami rumah panjang yang mengumpulkan beberapa keluarga, iaitu antara 150 - 200 orang. Walau bagaimanapun, pada masa kini, rumah panjang jarang dilihat dalam etnik ini. Kebanyakannya telah mengalami pembangunan fizikal dan mental.
Salah satu aspek kesenian yang amat popular dan diterima ramai dalam masyarakat Dusun ialah seni nyanyian tradisional. Seni nyanyian ini bukan sahaja digemari oleh masyarakat Dusun malah disukai oleh masyarakat lainnya di Sabah. Nyanyian yang sering dinyanyikan oleh masyarakat natif Sabah adalah berdasarkan kepada bahasa atau dialek etnik masing-masing. Masyarakat Dusun menyanyikan lagu mereka dalam bahasa Dusun, namun demikian terdapat lagu-lagu ciptaan yang dicampuradukkan bahasanya dengan etnik lain yang hampir sama. Seni nyanyian ini turut menjadi salah satu identiti masyarakat natif di Sabah kerana ianya agak unik dan berbeza-beza mengikut suku.

(Diambil daripada catitan FB John Charles Mitah Mikat bertarikh 5 Ogos 2013)


Tuesday, 16 June 2015

List of biker films

Before 1960

  • Mabel at the Wheel (1914), early Charlie Chaplin film
  • Sherlock, Jr. (1924), Buster Keaton film with world famous motorcycle scene
  • No Limit (1935), starring George Formby, Jr.
  • Step On It (1936)
  • Call the Mesquiteers (1938), Directed by John English, starring Robert Livingston
  • The Pace That Thrills (1952)
  • The Wild One (1953)
  • The Black Rider (1954)
  • Teenage Devil Dolls (1955)
  • Motorcycle Gang (1957)
  • The Hot Angel (1958)

1960s

Harvey Lembeck also did a parody of Marlon Brando from The Wild One as the bumbling leader of the inept Rat Pack motorcycle gang in six Beach Party films: Beach Party (1963), Bikini Beach and Pajama Party (both 1964), Beach Blanket Bingo and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini (both 1965), and The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini (1966).

1970s



1980s



1990s



2000s–present

 

 

Sunday, 14 June 2015

10 Simple Hacks To Fall Asleep In 30 Seconds, Backed By Science


1. Read A Book Before Bed

One of the best and renowned sleep hacks is to turn down the lights, snuggle down, and have a quick read of a good bedside tome. It doesn’t have to be particularly highbrow reading, although reading something you find boring or stale might well induce your visit to the Land of Nod. Reading helps facilitate sleep by forcing you to remove yourself from electronic equipment – items designed to keep your mind visually stimulated – and into a relaxed activity. So, next time you’re struggling to get to sleep, try picking up one of those books on your bedside. It might just be the thing to help.



2. Set A Formal Bedtime


Setting a formal bedtime – as in a time in which you force yourself to go to bed every evening – can be extremely beneficial in terms of helping you get to sleep post-haste. Not only can setting a formal bedtime help you physically, it has some strong psychological benefits. Setting a certain time for you to go to sleep helps your mind recognise that it is time for you to start unwinding and relaxing, much in the same way a child learns to sleep through the night. A regular bedtime also helps your brain adjust its levels of serotonin and melatonin, and helps balance your circadian rhythm out. In short, all good things, and essential sleep hacks that you should implement if you want to be asleep within seconds.

3. Eat A Healthier Diet


We know everyone keeps extolling the virtues of a healthier diet, and believe us, we’re sick of it too. However, if you’ll hear us out, adjusting your diet to help you get better sleep, might just be worth it. Research has found that increasing your intake of fruits, vegetables, and pulses can help improve your sleep and the time it takes for you to go to sleep dramatically, thanks to enhancing your levels of magnesium, potassium, or other essential minerals that your body needs. Even incorporating more turkey – rich in tryptophan which helps induce drowsiness and sleepiness – can help make the distance between awake and sleep much easier.

4. Keep Your Room Cool
The last tip we can offer to help you get to sleep quicker, is to make sure that you keep your room as cool as possible – but not too cool. Years of scientific research have found that your body temperature is key when trying to get to sleep, as your body temperature naturally drops when you start to nod off. Therefore maintaining a cool, but not cold temperature in your room is essential. Similar to the way how coming out of a hot bath makes you feel sleepy thanks to your body’s temperature drop, the best course of action is keeping a fan or a window open to keep cool air circulating, and then taking the opportunity to snuggle down. Lovely.

5. Practice Yoga Before Bed

If you fancy exploring something a little less orthodox, then research suggests that doing a spot of yoga can help relax your body and help you get to sleep in record time. In terms of sleep hacks, yoga has long been touted as an avenue worth exploring; certain sequences such as ‘Salute to the Moon’ are designed to be slow, gentle movements that promote a feeling of relaxation and which help relieve any bodily aches that might keep you up at night. Yoga gets a lot of attention for its health benefits, but if you’re stuck on a sleepless night, try your hand at some yoga and find yourself relaxing and nodding off immediately.

6. Meditate

The meditation revolution keeps on rolling through our cities and cultures, touted as a huge help for anyone who needs it – and with good reason. In terms of being simultaneously rudimentary and revolutionary, meditation has been commended as a kind of cure-all for a large swathe ofphysical or psychological ailments – in this case being unable to go to sleep. Meditation allows you to calm your restless mind and focus on the kind of slow, rhythmic breathing that helps make sleeping better. In fact one of the suggested breathing techniques, the ujjayi breath (or ocean breath), is perfect for calming you down and helping you nod off to sleep.

7. Drink Some Warm Milk

Sometimes the old wives’ tales turn out to have some common sense or a grain of surprising truth in them. For example, the old adage about drinking warm milk helping you go to sleep, turns out to be not only true, but a beneficial sleep hack for anyone trying to get to sleep quicker. Warm milk, or similarly crafted milk-based beverages, may have shaky standing as a soporific thanks to the ongoing debate over the actual effectiveness of tryptophan in aiding sleep. However, psychologists have considered that drinking warm milk may have an unconscious psychological effect, and that it relates to the childhood experience of breastfeeding and the comfort associated with it. So, if you want to have a little sip of something before you hit the hay, try a glass of warm milk, rather than the traditional boozy nightcap. You’ll feel better for it in the morning – in more ways than one.



8. Cut Out The Caffeine

One of the best sleep hacks out there is to cut out of the most prevalent addictive chemicals out there: caffeine. Yep, we’re all guilty of partaking in some caffeine at one point or another, whether it’s in our tea, coffee, or even out of chocolate. However, if you want to make sure you go to sleep as soon as possible, try and cut caffeine out of your diet after a certain point in the day. Studies indicate that cutting off your caffeine intake after 3pm helps improve quality of sleep, and the time it takes for you to get to sleep. So, if you want to try something to help you nod off in record time, try ditching that late evening cup of coffee, and see what happens.

9. Turn Off The Electronics

One of the biggest, best sleep hacks for the modern-day person, is to remove those pesky electronics from your bedroom to stop you playing with them. Numerous studies have found that the blue light from electronic devices disrupts your brain’s ability to begin relaxing for better quality sleep, as well as the likelihood of being unable to properly relax before hitting the hay, thanks to devices intended to keep you engaged. Instead, try and turn off your laptop, phone or tablet about an hour before you go to bed, so that your mind can unwind properly, and you can get that all-important quality of sleep that you deserve.
 
10. Invest In Some Blackout Curtains

This can be an issue no matter what your bedroom situation is, but it is always worth investing in a solid pair of blackout curtains if you’re looking for a great go-to sleep hack. With more and more light pollution in the day-to-day – your neighbour’s backyard spotlight, the streetlamps outside, everyone’s car headlights coming in at 1am – it can be harder and harder to sleep with all that extra light pouring in and messing up your chance at sleep. Blackout curtains are a great preventative measure, as they’ll make sure your sleep is longer, better, and is much less likely to be disturbed.

tips membeli tzm terpakai



smentara aku tengah xbusy ni,saje aku bukak topic ni,maklumla,tzm ni kan moto yg agak tua..boleh kita berkongsi info,untuk kebaikan bersama.. Smile

sedikit info:
1)yamaha tzm 150
2)147 cc
3)start kluar tahun 1994
4)last kluar tahun 2000
5)harga baru +-rm10.5k
6)harga terpakai(yg biasa org jual),ikut tahun dan condition moto,rm2.5k-6k,bawah dari tu pun ada,atas dari tu pun ada,berdasarkan condition moto dan budi bicara owner..


antara benda2 yg perlu di check:

1)on kunci,dengar bunyik servo,bunyi tu mesti 2 kali,sebab dier buka dan tutup balik,,pastikan bunyi dier smooth dan lancar,kalo xde bunyik@bunyi pelik mungkin servo dah jahanam atau battery low..servo 2nd hand +-rm200,kalo baru +-rm400 woo..pastu usyar kat sebelah kanan blok,tengok blok jenis apa,kalo y1 mmang best la,pastu tanya owner,pernah buat slip ke x,kalau xpernah dan blok tu dalam keadaan ori mmang terbaikla,tapi susah nak dapat skarang ni,70% owner tzm yg aku jumpa blok diorang dah buat slip baru..tapi kalau slip yg dibuat balik tu dibuat ngan cantik dan bagus,xde masalah pun,boleh je pakai..

2)start enjin,senang ke susah,pastu time enjin hidup ekzos akan bunyik kuat,sebab masa tu power valve dalam kdudukan open,pastu rem2 skit pv akan tutup,bunyik pun jadi lain,dah xbising..
dengar bunyi enjin,kalo bunyi biasa je ok la tu,enjin yamaha mmang bunyik kuat skit,tapi xla mlampau,kalo ada bunyi pelik,bunyi ketukan ke org bertukang ke,jaga2,mungkin ada something wrong,piston ring xelok ke,rod longgar ke..nak turun enjin bukan murah,makan ratus2 gak..
pastu dengar kat sbelah kanan enjin,tarik klac ngan x tarik klac ada beza x bunyi,kalo ada mungkin mangkuk klac dah x cun..rivet mangkuk klac+upah+lain2 barang berkaitan,+-rm60..

3)check untuk sbarang kebocoran minyak,kat bahagian enjin dan lain2(fork,monoshock,pump 2t,power valve etc),servis fork 2 batang +-rm50-60,mono kalau leaking kena tukar,kayaba +-rm180,pump 2t boleh servis,kalau tukar baru +-rm100 kot,power valve leaking kena tukar oil seal,+-rm15..

4)rev throttel kuat2 skit,enjin smooth ke x,biasanya bawah rpm 6 bunyi ekzos masih slow/kurang kuat..biasanya p.valve start bukak kat rpm 6,bunyi ekzos akan jadi lebih nyaring,pulas lagi sampai rpm 10-11,p.valve akan bukak habis,bunyi ekzos dah jadi nyaring dan bingit,kalau moto tu pakai cdi ori standard,kat rpm 11-11.5 akan ada cut off,mletup2,jangan risau,itu ialah normal..

5)try bawak moto tu,check meter,speedo,rpm ngan temperature,pastu tekan button kat sebelah ibu jari kanan,yg macam starter tu,tengok meter minyak ok ke x..meter 2nd hand +-rm150,kalo baru +-rm400..

6)bawak slow2,rasa enjin time bawak spatutnya ringan dan lembut,masuk gear pun xsusah,kalo susah dan moto rasa berat walaupun rpm naik mungkin bahagian klac ada problem,klac plate ke,housing klac ke..klac plate ori +-rm13 sekeping..

7)test brake semua ok x,suspension ok ke x,pastu kalau dah biasa bawak tzm bolehla bawak laju skit,tapi kalu xbiasa baik jangan,sebab ada gak kes 2-3 kawan aku yg terkujat gak ngan penangan pv fully open,kalo xbiasa ngan moto tu boleh jadi agak bahaya,nak2 lagi kalo area banyak kete..

8)try bawk maintain speed 110-120,boleh ke x,bobok ke x,ataupun moto ttiba drop sendiri klajuan dier,mungkin setting carburator x ngam,p.valve problem,cdi pun boleh jadi..cdi local +-rm50-100,cdi original >rm400..

9)kalau berani(INI TIDAK DIGALAKKAN ATAS FAKTOR KESELAMATAN DAN UNDANG2,APA2 RISIKO SILA TANGGUNG SENDIRI!!),try bawak dan menten speed 140-150kmh,tzm yg dalam keadaan baik xde masalah untuk menten speed camtu spanjang hiway sampai minyak ngan 2t abis,tanpa sebarang gegaran yg ketara..
top speed tzm standard tiptop,+-180-200kmh..tapi xyahla test kot,moto orang,kang jem ke naya je....hehe...

10)rasa suspension moto tu,goyang ke kalo langgar lubang@bonggol kecik,time koner membuang ke x,kalau goyang kuat mungkin ada masalah ngan tayar,fork,monoshock,swing arm@chassis(kalau chassis bengkok,mgkin moto tu pernah xcident teruk,so,lupakan jela,cari moto lain,xsyok bawak nanti,senget je..

11)bila dah berenti,biarkan enjin hidup dalam 10-15 minit,pastu tengok meter temperature,tzm yg sihat jarum temperature akan ada kat bawah dari setengah@setengah,bergantung pada cuaca dan bagaimana moto tu dibawa/dilenjan time test ride tadi..kalau jarum tu lebih stengah dan smakin naik,ini menunjukkan ada masalah kat cooling system,mgkin radiator bocor/sumbat ke,water pump xjalan ke dan sbagainya..makan duit jugak kalo nak repair..

12)sambil2 tu check la semua lampu yg ada(lampu bawah,atas,belakang,brake,signal dan sbgainya)berfungsi atau x..pastu kalau smua ok,matikan enjin,bukak seat,kat sebelah battery ada 1 kotak hitam,cdi namanya,cek tengok ori ke x,kalau ori ada cop yamaha timbul kat atas dier..cdi local,+-rm50,cdi ori >rm400..

13)dah abis test,kalau puas hati,nego harga yg berpatutan berdasarkan condition moto tu..tapi kalau moto tiptop dan harga cantik,jangan tunggu lama2,bayar kat owner,pastu balik umah basuh moto,polish kilat2,pastu siap2 untuk g jalan2 pusing doniaa..jangan lupa check air radiator,angin tayar,isi minyak petrol ngan 2t...hehe rabbit ..

dokumentasi:
pastikan geran ialah geran ori,dan proses tukar nama boleh dilakukan..
check no chasis dan no enjin kat geran sama x dengan kat moto(no chasis tzm ada kat bahagian kon handle,bawah ignition switch,no enjin ada kat bahagian atas enjin,kat bawah/tepi carburator..

dan perkara penting yg harus diingat,tzm ni kbanyakannya dah lebih 10 tahun,so,lepas beli standby la dalam rm500 ke untuk touch up ape2 yg patut..kalau moto dah tiptop,slamat mnikmati keseronokan menunggang the pure 2 stroke spirit,yamaha tzm 150,highway star...
akhir kata,berhati2 dijalanraya.. Smile


kalau ader kgkawan lain nak tambah sangatlah dialu2kan,kalau ada yg aku salah bolehla tlg betulkan,sama2 kita belajar dan kongsi ilmu... Smile